We are helping our clients in this transversal sector to solve their complex business issues from strategy to execution

Space is a complex sector driven by macro-level dynamics that go beyond simple market forces, requiring a holistic view. 

It comprises multiple domains/segments with different specificities, it is characterised by an ever evolving regulatory and policy environment which can heavily dictate the evolutions of the sector, and it has significant reach and implications into other industrial sectors thanks to the services and applications it enables, with subsequent dependency on general macro-trends. 

Finally, it has considerable wider societal and economic impacts, justifying the still prevalent government spending in the sector. Indeed, Space is key to address growing challenges and needs for global connectivity, environmental monitoring and security.

Issues in the space sector

Our expertise


The satcom industry and its value-chain is well-established, with over five decades of commercial existence. However, this industry is being disrupted by ventures established by dot-com Billionaires. These are rapidly changing the traditional norms of the industry from GEO to LEO architecture, and from 10s of large satellites to 100s or even 1000s of small satellites.

Examples of credentials:

  • assessment of the user needs and requirements for the development of a hybrid (terrestrial and space) architecture to deliver Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) to European stakeholders
  • assessment of the EU supply chain strengths and gaps for critical components of future quantum communications satellites
  • assessment of the satellite communication requirements of governmental users and evaluation of governance scheme options for the GOVSATCOM initiative 
  • business case and strategy evaluation for OEM vertical integration to SATCOM services 
  • support to a Tier-1 space systems supplier for entry on the India market
  • green field business case development for a new SATCOM operator in Middle East / North Africa

Earth Observation

The Earth Observation (EO) domain has raised a lot of interest from investors over the past years with 4 EO companies going public in 2021 through Special Purpose Acquisition Company (SPAC), for a EO companies going public in 2021 through Special Purpose Acquisition Company (SPAC), for a cumulative valuation of US$ 6.6 billion. In parallel, the user uptake and dissemination of EO data is progressing across the globe, with an interesting penetration in emerging space nations, notably thank to the availability of free and open Sentinel imagery from the European Copernicus programme.

Examples of credentials: 

  • business strategy definition for a geospatial leader in the Gulf region, including current capabilities assessment, business model & financial plan development, and strategy implementation
  • strategic market assessment of the satellite-based geospatial data and analytics market for a growing US-based EO start-up
  • strategic commercial due diligence (buyer side) of a major player in the global EO sector with an in-depth analysis of the market dynamics, competitive landscape, market sizing and competitive positioning, product and service portfolio, technical capabilities, regulatory considerations
  • strategic commercial due diligence of a EO sector player (buyer side) of a EO company serving the defence and intelligence market
  • business plan review of a leader in geo-information and satellite manufacturing in Europe 
  • strategic market assessment and go-to-market for the introduction of new innovative EO offering, for a leader in Europe 
  • strategic market assessment and go-to-market for the introduction of new innovative EO offer (hyperspectral) for a start-up in North America 
  • review of an on-going programme related to the development of an Earth Observation capacity for defence and intelligence application in a European country


Satellites provide positioning and timing services to a global user base. With the increasing penetration of connected devices in industries, GNSS is more widely used than ever, integrated into consumer electronics, military hardware, connected vehicles, safety of life beacons, and more, representing an immense and ever-growing market.

Examples of credentials:

  • impact assessment of Fundamental Elements and H2020 GNSS funding tools and associated GNSS market and technology gap assessment 
  • identification of potential prime management options for the development and procurement phases of the second generation Galileo satellites 
  • evaluation of future disruption potential for navigation technologies for a US terminal/system manufacturer 
  • market assessment and technology analysis for the Galileo atomic clock supply chain, leading to policy action recommendations
  • characterisation of the financial and technical tools to support EGNSS downstream business and R&D, analysing the synergies between the Fundamental Elements programme and other Horizon 2020 EGNSS calls
  • critical review of business plans for projects funded under the EU Fundamental Elements programme


Commercial access to space has become increasingly competitive on the global market, pushing for innovations and an adaptation of the economic model of the launcher industry. For spacefaring nations, this is particularly important for the protection of a domestic and independent access to space.

Examples of credentials:

  • benchmarking of the major space nations’ launch capabilities
  • critical analysis of a business plan and added-value of the launcher system of a European micro launcher company 
  • benchmarking of the major European space nations’ launch capabilities and policies for the European Commission
  • socio-economic impact assessment of the Ariane 6 and Vega-C programmes 
  • market assessment of the European microlauncher market for a space agency 
  • support in the analysis of business and operating models for a spaceport operating micro-launchers
  • global launch market forecast for a large rocket propellant provider and space hardware manufacturer
  • support to the definition and implementation of Data strategy in the context of the development of a future launcher

Space Safety

The use of space has helped enhance the global economy, provide social benefits, support environmental protection activities, and ensure strategic sovereignty. Therefore, many sectors and activities rely on the protection of space assets against threats such as man-made space objects, space weather events and near-Earth objects. The increased usage of the space environment highlights the importance of Space Safety activities.

Examples of credentials:

  • socio-economic Impact Assessment of ESA’s Space safety programme
  • impact Assessment of European Space Traffic Management Activities
  • understanding of Space safety for the needs of future projects and activities of a national
  • Space Programme
  • support in the definition of the strategy toward the rise of Space Traffic Management for a national government
  • study on the impacts of the EU space surveillance and tracking actions in the Space Strategy for Europe In line with the focus of the Space Strategy for Europe 
  • assessment of the dependence of the European Economy on Space Infrastructure
  • ex-ante cost benefit analysis of the ESA SSA programmes, covering space weather, Near Earth Objects and Space Surveillance tracking

Exploration and in-orbit economy

Exploratory activities have enabled humankind to achieve remarkable technological, scientific, and societal milestones. It has been a sector that heavily relied on political will and government funding. This is gradually changing with the advent of private sector investment aiming to commercialise space exploration activities.

Examples of credentials:

  • market characterisation, sizing and forecast for lunar transportation, lunar data (environment, telemetry) and lunar resources utilisation up to 2030
  • study on potential future markets of Space Resource Utilisation (SRU), including socio-economic benefits and a technological roadmap covering each stage of the value chain
  • socio-economic impact assessment of ESA’s participation in the ISS programme, including GDP impact, catalytic benefits and wider benefits 
  • ex-ante socio-economic assessment of ESA’s new partnership proposals for the use of the ISS, LEO exploitation and lunar exploration 
  • provision of recommendations for the establishment of a Space Resources Utilisation regulatory framework for a space agency in the Middle East 
  • ex-post and ex-ante socio-economic impact assessment of ESA’s Science Programme missions, covering 4 past missions and 4 future missions

Ground segment services

Satellite communication has been made possible thanks to ground segment for decades, and as the satellite industry has evolved, ground segment has also been going through profound mutations, supported by the development of technologies like Artificial Intelligence or Inter Satellite Links

Examples of credentials:

  • socio economic impact assessment of ESA’s ground systems engineering and operations activities & related foresight study
  • overview of current Ground Segment as a Service (GSaaS) market trends and dynamics to support telecommunication company strategic positioning options 
  • technical consultancy support to the ISS Columbus control centre and Ground segment communications architecture

PwC Insights from Space

Satellite data coupled with advancements in cloud computing has opened avenues to unprecedented levels of analysis. The ever-lowering barriers to entry for utilisation of satellite data brings forth new use cases and possibilities for business insights in various sectors, but also for strategy and policy consulting. Data collected from satellites offers huge commercial opportunities in various industries but its potential has remained largely untapped.

PwC’s Insights from Space applies advanced analytics derived from integrating and analysing satellite data combined with other sources to generate deep business intelligence.

Examples of credentials:

  • policy monitoring & sustainable farming (capacity building)
  • advisory services for retail & energy
  • ESG reporting for an investment fund 
  • conformity, tax compliance & fraud
  • insurance (capacity building)
  • agricultural finance (capacity building)

Space Legal Tech

To illustrate our understanding of the Space regulatory environment and our service offering in space policies and regulations, we have teamed up with the SIRIUS Space Law academic chair to develop the Space LegalTech, the most advanced and free online platform for Space Laws & Regulations.

Via the Space LegalTech, we are able to channel the expertise we develop by supporting space agencies in developing space policies and regulations that are tailored to their individual needs, or by helping private space actors understand the regulatory environment in which they navigate.

Our service offering is systematically tailored to the various challenges of our customers, such as the digital transformation, by supporting them along all the steps of their projects. 

The PwC space team enables its partners to identify the available levers to generate growth through their projects. Our team relies on a strong sectorial expertise, on demonstrated competencies for strategy definition to the optimisation of operations, and on our access to an international and multidisciplinary network of over 200 000 skilled collaborators. 

A tailored service offering


With a 100-year legacy in strategy consulting, PwC and its strategy consulting team Strategy& offers a unique “capabilities-driven strategy” approach to maximise its clients’ chances of success.

  • Market characterisation, gap analyses and evaluation of market opportunities and barriers 
  • Assessment of policy options and institutional actions for market development 
  • Evaluation of business cases, revenue projections, business plan review
  • Formulation of end-to-end business strategy, including capabilities assessment, market assessment, identification of potential ways-to-play, M&A and partnerships option, operating models and financial plan
  • Support to M&A: commercial due diligence, market screening & targets identification, equity story, post-acquisition growth strategy

Socio-economic impact assessment

PwC has developed a comprehensive and commonly accepted suite of methodologies to cover the whole spectrum of socio-economic impact assessments. The approach, which has been used and validated on numerous occasions, can be applied to large-scale public or private investments.

  • GDP impact assessments
  • Technology & knowledge spillovers assessment 
  • Non-monetary impact assessments (e.g. Value of Information)
  • Cost-Benefit Analyses (CBA)

Governance and operations

We support institutional bodies and private customers involved in space programmes in the analysis of governance and organisational structure to target operational excellence.

  • Governance at country, programme and entity level
  • Identification of funding schemes to support the development of space capabilities 
  • Audit of programmes and agencies governance structures to maximise economic development 
  • Digital transformation


We have supported public bodies to analyse regulations impacting the space sector from upstream to downstream. Our team includes legally trained consultants, supported for in-depth assessments.

  • Support in the drafting of space laws and regulations, including procedure for authorization of space activities including launch and operation of spacecraft 
  • Benchmarking and drafting of space EO data regulations
  • Assessment of the warranty and liability safeguards of Earth Observation and Navigation data 
  • Analysis of IPR, Personal Data Protection and export regulation 

Data Analytics: PwC Insight from Space

Thanks to our understanding of the applications of satellite data and its potential in the overall big data analytics market, we have supported commercial and institutional actors in unlocking the potential of satellite data and deriving unique analytics and insights.

  • Feasibility studies by identifying relevant internal use cases and developing strategic roadmaps 
  • Development of Proof of Concept using open sources tools and cloud-based solutions 
  • Support in developing internal capacity of organisations to integrate insights from satellite data


Photo: NASA

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Luigi Scatteia

Luigi Scatteia

Associé Consulting - Responsable activité spatiale, PwC France et Maghreb